Table of Contents

  1. Epilogue

Analysis of the Metamorphosis

Analysis of the Metamorphosis

As a reader, the first thing that struck me about Franz Kafka’s “Metamorphosis” was the shocking and unsettling opening line: “As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams, he found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous vermin.” This opening immediately sets the tone for the rest of the story and foreshadows the isolation and alienation that Gregor will experience due to his transformation.

It mainly encompasses themes of isolation and alienation. Gregor’s transformation into a bug isolates him from his family and society, as he can no longer communicate or interact with them in the same way as before. This isolation is further compounded by the fact that Gregor’s family cannot understand or accept his transformation, and they eventually become repulsed by his presence.

Another highlight is the responsibility and the role of the individual within society. Before his transformation, Gregor was the sole breadwinner for his family, and he took this responsibility very seriously. However, after his transformation, he cannot fulfill this role and provide for his family, leading to guilt and inadequacy. This theme is also reflected in how Gregor’s family treats him after his transformation. They initially try to care for him and accommodate his new form. Still, as time passes and their financial struggles increase, they become more and more resentful of Gregor’s inability to contribute.

Gregor Samsa & Grete
Gregor Samsa & Grete
Photo: Edward Watson, a principal dancer with the Royal Ballet, plays Gregor Samsa and Corey Annand plays his sister, Grete, in this adaptation of the Franz Kafka novella at the Joyce Theater. Credit: Paula Lobo for The New York Times.

One of the most poignant moments in “Metamorphosis” for me was when Gregor’s sister, Grete, transforms from being a compassionate and caring sister to being disgusted and resentful of Gregor. This transformation mirrors Gregor’s own transformation and highlights the impact his transformation has had on his relationship with his family. It also highlights how society can reject and ostracize those different or unable to fulfill their expected roles.

The relationship between Gregor and his father is also an interesting aspect of the novella. At the story’s beginning, Gregor’s father is a strong and authoritarian figure who cannot accept or understand Gregor’s transformation. As the story progresses, however, the roles are reversed, and Gregor’s father becomes dependent, relying on Gregor’s sister for support and care. This reversal highlights the power dynamics at play within the family and how they can shift and change over time.

In a nutshell, this work is a poignant and thought-provoking tale that explores themes of isolation, responsibility, and the role of the individual within society. It is a powerful reminder of how society can ostracize and reject those who are different or unable to fulfill their expected roles and the devastating impact that this can have on an individual’s sense of self and belonging.


As I reflect on Kafka’s works, I am struck by the timeless nature of his themes and the enduring relevance of his writing. Kafka’s exploration of bureaucracy, power dynamics, and the search for meaning in a seemingly oppressive and arbitrary world speak to the human experience in a universal and deeply personal way.

© Archiv Klaus Wagenbach, Berlin
© Archiv Klaus Wagenbach, Berlin

One thing that strikes me about Kafka’s work is how he captures the feeling of being trapped and powerless in the face of larger forces.

Whether it is the protagonist, as mentioned earlier of “The Metamorphosis” is confined to his bed as he transforms into a giant bug or the characters in “The Trial” being caught in the web of a mysterious and seemingly arbitrary legal system, Kafka’s writing evokes a sense of entrapment and helplessness that many of us can surely relate to.

At the same time, however, Kafka’s works also contain moments of hope and redemption. Despite the bleak and often surreal landscapes of his stories, there is a sense that even in the darkest of circumstances, it is possible to find meaning and purpose.

As mentioned earlier, In “The Metamorphosis,” the protagonist’s family rallies around him and cares for him even as he becomes increasingly grotesque and unrecognizable. And in “The Castle,” the protagonist’s unrelenting pursuit of his goal, despite the many obstacles in his way, suggests a resilience and determination that can help us persevere in even the most difficult circumstances.

In a world that can often feel overwhelming and confusing, Kafka’s writing offers a beacon of light, guiding us through the darkness and helping us to make sense of the world around us.

Written by MighilMighil is an indie musician and tinkerer with diverse work experience in technology and writing. He has had the privilege of serving in various capacities, encompassing generalist and specialist roles. He is currently based in Chengdu.


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